Dyslexia is a learning disability that affects language development. It is characterized by difficulties in reading (word recognition) and writing/spelling (sound letter correspondence and sequencing sounds). The reading problem someone with dyslexia experiences, is a symptom, with its foundation in fundamental language processing difficulties. This processing issue is in the phonological (speech sounds), auditory (listening) and visual (reading/writing) domains.
Individuals with dyslexia typically have intact speech perception abilities, but some phonological problems do appear to take on a linguistic/verbal difficulty at times, which is related to incorrectly processing the language information. For example, processing and then saying/writing the word “hubbing” for “humming” (“What is that hubbing sound?”), or the word “declare” as “clare” (“I need to clare my taxes”).
The difficulties with auditory processing may also present as short term memory challenges, as these individuals may have trouble processing and then recalling the order of brief, non-speech tones when presented rapidly. As well they may experience struggles in processing rapidly changing auditory sensory input.