Children with Down Syndrome have structural differences (small/narrow upper jaw; high roof of mouth) and functional differences (low muscle tone; weak muscles) which often lead to speech issues. These structural and functional differences make precise oral movements difficult, and can result in an open mouthed posture and tongue protrusion, as well as difficulties feeding.
In addition, children with Down Syndrome often have difficulties due to challenges with textures. They may be hypersensitive and have an aversion to stimuli, or be hyposensitive and have reduced reactions to touch. Children with Down syndrome may have postural difficulties and/or respiratory difficulties that may require assistance to better support speech.