Dysphonia is a disruption to the normal voice production, but not complete voice loss. Dysphonia is perceived as hoarseness, raspyness, breathiness, strain, etc. Anything that does not sound like the person’s "normal" voice. This typically causes an abnormal vibration pattern in the vocal cords that can be remediated through voice therapy.
Causes include: vocal overuse, abuse and misuse and may be the product of growths on the vocal cords (e.g. polyps or nodules), or inflammation (caused by allergies, infection, reflux).